Kochi is located on the southwest coast of India at 9°58'N
76°13'E, spanning an area of 94.88 km². The city
is located at the northern end of a peninsula, about 19
km long and less than 1.6 km wide. To the west lies the
Arabian Sea, and to the east are estuaries that are drained
by perrenial rivers originating in the Western Ghats.
Much of Kochi lies at sea level with a coastline of 48
The current metropolitan limits of Kochi include the mainland
Ernakulam, old Kochi, the suburbs of Edapally, Kalamassery
and Kakkanad to the northeast; Tripunithura to the south
east; and a group of islands closely scattered in the
Vembanad Lake. Most of these islands are very small, varying
in extent from 6 square kilometre to less than a square
Soil consists of sediments such as Alluvium, Teri’s,
Brown sands etc. Hydromorphic saline soils are also found
in the areas surrounding the backwaters. Predominent rock
types found here are Archaean-basic dykes, Charnockites
and Gneisses. An ecologically sensitive area, the Mangalavanam
Bird Sanctuary is located in the central part of the city.
It has a wide range of mangrove species and is nesting
ground for a vast variety of migratory birds.
Kochi's proximity to equator along with its coastal location
results in little seasonal temperature variation, with
moderate to high levels of humidity. Annnual temperatures
range between 20 to 35 °C (68–95 °F) with
the record high being 38 °C, and record low 17 °C.
From June through September, the south-west monsoon brings
in heavy rains as Kochi lies on the windward side of the
Western Ghats. From October to December, Kochi receives
light rain from the north-West monsoon, as it lies on
the leeward side. Average annual rainfall is 350 cm, with
an annual average of 132 rainy days.